Table 6. Uses of industrial enzymes.
EnzymeReactionSourceApplication
Industrial catalysts
Acid proteasesProtein digestionAspergillus niger, Kluyveromyces lactisMilk coagulation in cheese manufacture
Alkaline proteasesProtein digestionBacillus speciesDetergents and washing powders
AminoacylaseHydrolysis of acylated l–amino acidsAspergillus speciesProduction of l–amino acids
α-AmylaseStarch hydrolysisBacillus speciesConversion of starch to glucose or dextrans in the food industry
AmyloglucosidaseDextrin hydrolysisAspergillus speciesGlucose production
β-GalactosidaseLactose hydrolysisAspergillus speciesHydrolysis of lactose in milk or whey
Glucose isomeraseConversion of glucose to fructoseStreptomyces speciesHigh-fructose syrup production
Penicillin acylasePenicillin side-chain cleavageE. coli6-APA formation for production of semi-synthetic penicillins
Therapeutic agents
l-AsparaginaseRemoval of l–asparagine essential for tumour growthE. coliCancer chemotherapy, particularly for leukaemia
UrokinasePlasminogen activationHumanRemoval of fibrin clots from bloodstream
Analytic reagents
Glucose oxidaseGlucose oxidationAspergillus nigerDetection of glucose in blood
LuciferaseBioluminescenceMarine bacteria or fireflyBioluminescent assays involving ATP
PeroxidaseDye oxidation using H2O2HorseradishQuantification of hormones and antibodies
UreaseHydrolysis of urea to CO2 and NH3Jack beanUrea quantification in body fluids
Manipulative tools
LysozymeHydrolysis of 1–4 glycosidic bondsHen egg whiteDisruption of mucopeptide in bacterial cell walls
NucleasesHydrolysis of phosphodiester bondsVarious bacteriaRestriction enzymes used in genetic manipulation to cut DNA
DNA polymerasesDNA synthesisThermus aquaticusDNA amplification used in the polymerase chain reaction