Table 1 Worldwide hard XFEL facilities and their key properties
FEL, InstitutionLocationStart of operationRepitition rate (Hz)Photon wavelength (Å)Pulse length (fs [FWHM])Photons/Pulse (×1012 at 1 Å)
LCLS, SLACPalo Alto, USA20091203.0–1.210–3001.8
SACLA, RIKENHarima, Japan201230/603.1–0.62<100.25
PAL_FELPohang, Korea2016602.5–1.0<100<1
SwissFEL, PSIWürenlingen, Switzerland20171007.0–0.835–500.7
EuXFELHamburg, Germany201710 × 27004.0–0.52–1000.9
  • FWHM, full width at half maximum.