Table 1 Known ER-phagy receptors in yeast and mammals, and their known functions and characteristics
ReceptorGeneral descriptionAIM/LIROther ATG-interaction motifsPhysiological roleReticulon homology domain (RHD)Transmembrane proteinRegion of ER
Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Atg39Localized to the peripheral ER and nuclear envelope. Also participates in nucleophagy as it encapsulates nuclear contents as well as ER membranesWNLVAtg11BRRegulates perinuclear ER and nuclear morphologyNoYesPerinuclear
Atg40Localized predominantly at cytoplasmic and cortical ER. Facilitates the loading of ER sheets and tubules into autophagosomesYDFMUnknown (proposed Atg11 interaction)Regulates ER morphologyYesYesPerinuclear, cortical and cytoplasmic
Mammals (Homo sapiens)
FAM134BPromotes the remodelling and scission of ER sheets through its reticulon domainFELLUnknownHealth of sensory neuronsYesNoSheets
SEC62Delivers portions of ER into autophagosomes following ER stress in a process termed ‘recovER-phagy’FEMIUnknownUnknownNoYesUnknown
RTN3Promotes the remodelling and scission of ER tubules through its reticulon domainFTLLUnknownUnknownYesNoTubules
CCPG1Delivers portions of ER to autophagosomes in response to ER-stress inductionWTVITwo FIR motifsLuminal proteostasis of exocrine pancreas (acinar cells)NoYesUnknown
  • The bold-underlined residues are key residues required for ATG8/LC3 binding. Abbreviations: AIM, Atg8-interacting motif (yeast equivalent of an LIR); ATG11BR, Atg11-binding region; FIR, FIP200-interacting region.