Table 1 List of known chloroplast RNA protectors, their targets, and domains
ProteinGene IDTargets/Binding Site(s)Protein Family/DomainsOrganismReferences
PPR10GRMZM2G177169atpH 5′ UTR, psaJ 3′ UTRPPRZea mays[24,52]
HCF152AT3G09650psbH-petB IGR, petB 5′ UTR, psbH 3′ UTRPPRArabidopsis thaliana[57,28]
CRP1GRMZM2G083950psaC 5′ UTR, petA 5′ UTR (role in translation)PPRZea mays[26,60,62]
AT5G42310petB-petD IGR (shown in Arabidopsis)Arabidopsis thaliana
SOT1AT5G46580rrn23 5′ endPPR-SMRArabidopsis thaliana[63–65]
PPR53GRMZM2G438524Zea mays
PGR3AT4G31850petL, ndhA 5′ UTRsPPRArabidopsis thaliana[66–69]
GRMZM2G372632Zea mays
PPR5GRMZM2G025409trnG(UCC) intronPPRZea mays[61,70]
AT4G39620Arabidopsis thaliana
EMB175AT5G03800rpl16 5′ UTRPPR-PLS-DYWArabidopsis thaliana[72,73]
PPR103GRMZM2G170896Zea mays
SVR7AT4G16390atpF-atpA IGR, psaJ-rpl33 IGR, atpB/E 5′ UTRPPRArabidopsis thaliana[75,76]
ATP4GRMZM2G128665Zea mays
CRR2At3g46790rps7-ndhB IGRPPR-PLS-DYWArabidopsis thaliana[77,78]
PpPPR_38BAF02672.1clpP-rps12 IGRPPRPhyscomitrella patens[79,80]
28RNPX57955.1psbA, rbcL, petD, rps14 3′ UTRscpRNPs, RRM motifSpinacea oleracea[85]
CP31AAt4G247703′ ends of psbB, psbD, psaA/B, atpB, ndhB, ndhFcpRNPs, RRM motifArabidopsis thaliana[88,89]
CP29AAT3G534603′ ends of psbB, psbD, psaA/B, atpB, ndhBcpRNPs, RRM motifArabidopsis thaliana[98]
CP33AAT3G52380Multiple transcriptscpRNPs, RRM motifArabidopsis thaliana[90]
Additional chloroplast RNA-stabilizing RNA-binding proteins
HCF145AT5G08720psaA 5′ UTR2 TMR domains and 2 SRPBCC domainsArabidopsis thaliana[91,92]
XM_001783694Physcomitrella patens
PrfB1/HCF109AT5G36170Transcripts with UGA stop codonsribosomal release factor, SPF and GGQ motifsArabidopsis thaliana[94,95]
PrfB3AT3G57190petB 3′ UTRhomologous to PrfB1 (HCF109)Arabidopsis thaliana[31]
HCF107AT3G17040psbH 5′ UTRHAT (Half a TPR)Arabidopsis thaliana[29,56,97–99]
Zm-HCF107GRMZM2G121960Zea mays
  • Abbreviation: IGR, intergenic region. Homologs are shown in the same row.